Vol 3-2 Review Article

Combining All Available Clinical Outcomes on Cervical Disc Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background: Reviews of total disc arthroplasty (TDA) performance have focused on prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs), excluding potentially important clinical information reported by others. The goal of the present study was to perform a comprehensive review, including both RCTs and non-randomized cohorts with more than five years of clinical outcome. We further explored the differences in outcome between prospective RCT and non-randomized, including retrospective studies.

Methods: A systematic literature review was performed following PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were: clinical follow-up ≥ 5 years with quantitative clinical and radiographic outcome. All studies that met these criteria, including retrospective and non-randomized studies, were included, for a total of 62 studies. As anterior cervical discectomies and fusion (ACDF) was included as a control group in the majority of the studies, comparisons between TDA and ACDF were conducted.

Results: Overall, there was a statistically significant difference between the rates of secondary surgeries reported for prospective RCTs and all other studies, with reoperation rates of 5.4% for prospective RCT studies v. 7.5% in all others (P<0.01). Including all studies, the reoperation rate for TDA patients was 5.6% and for fusion patients (included as control groups), 7.8%, (P=0.06). Overall, the reported incidence of adjacent segment degeneration was 26.2% in TDA patients and 43.9% in fusion patients (P<0.001).

Conclusions: These findings demonstrated the need for including all available data to assess the current outcomes of cervical disc arthroplasty and account for potential biases.

DOI: 10.29245/2767-5130/2022/2.1158 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-2 Mini Review

Sex-specific Considerations for Shoulder Instability and Adhesive Capsulitis in Females

There has been an increasing focus on sex-specific differences within the context of sports medicine. Differences exist between the sexes leading to disparities in the types of injuries female athletes sustain and the rates at which they experience them. Recognition and awareness of subtle differences between the sexes can lead to a more nuanced diagnosis and treatment of such injuries. The purpose of this study is to review shoulder pathologies that are relevant to the female athlete, specifically adhesive capsulitis, multidirectional instability, and traumatic unidirectional shoulder instability, and highlight the differences in diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes between the sexes. Women suffer from adhesive capsulitis at a greater rate than men and there are risk factors such as breast cancer surgery that are unique to women. Females are much more likely to experience atraumatic shoulder instability than their male counterparts. While females represent a minority of patients who suffer traumatic unidirectional shoulder instability, they should not be overlooked with regards to this condition. There are challenges related to the diagnosis and treatment of these pathologies that are distinctive to female athletes.

DOI: 10.29245/2767-5130/2022/2.1130 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-2 Systematic Review

Low Rates of Reporting and Analyzing Race and Ethnicity in Hand Surgery Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review

Purpose: Sociodemographic factors have been shown to influence musculoskeletal health. However, little is known regarding the frequency of reporting and analysis of certain sociodemographic variables (e.g., age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), race, and ethnicity) in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) pertaining to hand surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of reporting and analysis of these variables in RCTs published in the Journal of Hand Surgery (JHS).

Methods: A systematic review was conducted of RCTs published in JHS between 2015 and 2021. For each study, we determined whether the following sociodemographic variables were reported and/or analyzed: age, sex, height, weight, BMI, race, and ethnicity. Frequencies were reported by year and as a cumulative total. Studies were evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool.

Results: A total of 45 RCTs met inclusion criteria, with about half (53.3%) originating from the United States. Age (97.8%) and sex (91.1%) were the most frequently reported sociodemographic variables, followed by race (17.8%), BMI (11.1%), and ethnicity (8.9%). Age (17.8%) was the most frequently analyzed variable, followed by sex (13.3%), and race (4.4%); the remaining variables were not analyzed in any study.

Conclusions: While age and sex are reported at a high rate, only about 1 in 4 RCTs published in JHS report either race or ethnicity. All sociodemographic variables were infrequently included as part of statistical analysis. The significance of these findings should be recognized and used to interpret and enhance the methodology of future RCTs.

DOI: 10.29245/2767-5130/2022/2.1160 View / Download Pdf